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This is an expert level topic, please avoid this feature unless you feel that you understand the implications and consequences of it. Note that using this feature goes against the self-contained material principle present in the future proof guidelines.

That being said, a common request on the wish-list has been to provide some means of sharing code between questions. The inclusion-feature is the first step towards such a feature, however, it is not perfect nor do we expect it to be the solution that will finally be selected. But we provide it now that the back-end has the tools to provide it, for those adventurous enough.

Technical note: Currently, inclusions within inclusions are not supported, due to loop detection and security validation reasons.

Inclusions life-cycle

For all current types of inclusions the inclusion happens at the time of compilation, which means that the source will be fetched when the question gets compiled and will stay in the cached compilation product. Compilation happens during the first use of the question after it has been saved or the cache has been purged.

The logic will not track changes to the source material, if one wants to fetch it again one must re-compile the question, either by purging the caches or by editing the question.

Note that in the current solution during export we export only the source address and the exported material will only work if the address is accessible at the end that imports it.

Inclusions within text

The simpler inclusion type is the CASText2 include-block, which will simply place CASText2-code from a given address at the blocks location. Note that one may need to be careful with the format of the context and included code, the include logic assumes that the code is of the same format as the context, so if your included content is in Markdown-format including it directly to HTML-context may cause trouble.

Typical use case would be to have a JSXGraph or GeoGebra plotting logic that expect that certain variables contain parameters for plotting and one would then simply make sure that one would populate those parameters before inclusion of the plotting logic for example like this:

First plot the first plot with the values defined earlier.
[[include src=""/]]

Then include the same plotting logic but change the parameters to plot something else.
[[define plot_fun="theotherfun" plot_param1="something"/]]
[[include src=""/]]

As the included content can be of a different format (Markdown etc.) than the context into which it gets included it is recommended that the included content defines its own format. For example, wrapping itself in one of the new format controlling blocks [[moodleformat]], [[htmlformat]] or [[markdownformat]], thus allowing whatever format content to be included within another formats content. Note, that at this time identification of math-mode is not quite ready to understand all of these context switches.

Inclusions within CAS-logic

You can also include code into keyvals, i.e. question-variables or into feedback-variables. This type of an inclusion will again act just as if written directly by the question author at that place in the code. If one writes this type of an inclusion within an if-statement it will simply get written open within an if-statement, the if will only decide if it executes, but it will still take that space and bandwidth.

The included material must follow all the rules of normal STACK keyvals.

  1. Large amounts of code will affect performance. The internal Maxima code is pre-compiled but question variables are interpreted at runtime.
  2. All the identifiers bound in included code will subject to checks just as if you typed them in.
  3. Identifiers in your code will be marked as forbidden-words for the students. So particular care should be taken when choosing identifiers in such shared logic between questions. Do not use names a student might need to type in another, un-related, question!
  4. Code is loaded when you save the question, not when a student uses the question. Hence code is cached in the question. Updates to an external library will therefore not affect existing questions. That cache will not invalidate unless you (a) update the STACK plugin (which clears all cached/compiled questions), (b) save the question (which again downloads the code).

Note that we do not do "tree-shaking" at this point to remove unnecessary code. If you include a massive library of functions that you do not use the question will still have to load those functions into the CAS and that may take some time. If you have libraries, used in many questions, please consider contributing these to the core of STACK.

To include external CAS code call the stack_include()-function with a string argument. The argument must be a raw string, containing the URL of the code. You cannot reference a variable containing such a string. For example,

a: rand(3)+2;
/* Load logic to tune the presentation. */
/* Load some special randomisation functions. */
m: mymatrix_rand_integer_invertible(a);

You may not use evaluation flags with stack_include() while the code included may have them the inclusion call cannot be used to apply flags to all the included content.

The function stack_include_contrib() will load the files contained in the STACK maxima contrib folder in the master branch in github. In particular the argument of stack_include_contrib() has this URL prepended:

Hence, the following are completely equivalent



  1. We will try to keep files in the contrib folder small, and stable.
  2. We intend to move commonly used contributed code into the core in due course. At that point we will localise language strings for automatic translation.
  3. Please contact the developers about naming conventions. For example, external validators should start the function name with validator_.

Sandbox testing

Note, that stack_include() and has no Maxima-side equivalent so you cannot simply copy-paste your question-variables into Maxima to debug things. You will need to manually do that inclusion.

stack_include_contrib() will load the packages from the local STACK files, when you set up the sandbox. Make sure you have the latest code in your sandbox as you may have stale versions of contributed (and other core) files on your local machine.